11536. Nicholas LANIER was born about 1542 in
Rouen, France. He died in 1611 in England. BIOGRAPHY:
L A N I E R F A M I L Y
Excited is an under-statement when I got The Long Brewer Line, by Ben R. Brewer,
and discovered the Huguenot family that I had been looking for. Our Lanier family
is from France, an aristocratic, distinguished, educated family. They were musicians
for the king and queens of France and England for three generations. The Laniers
were also French Huguenots who fled to England; therefore, they were English
Huguenots rather than American Huguenots. However, our immediate Lanier Grandsire
immigrated to Virginia in the 1600s. This enables us to become members of the
VA. Branch of the Huguenot Society.
What is a Huguenot? The Funk and Wagnall's Standard Dictionary, International
Edition states: A French Protestant of the 16th and 17th Centuries: Persecuted
during the religious wars of the time.
The Collier's Encyclopedia gives this information: French Protestants in the
16th and 17th centuries. The origin of the word is obscure. It may have been
a local nickname given to the Protestants of Tours, who were believed to meet
near the gate of the mythical King Huguet or Hugon. The first Huguenots were
often regarded as Lutherans; there is no doubt, however, that a strong evangelical
movement existed in France during the early decades of the 16th century, independent
of the German Reformation. The new church grew rapidly, in spite of official
opposition to it and of the dubious outcome of Colloquy of Poissy in 1561, which
failed to establish a policy of religious freedom or tolerance.
From 1562 to 1598, French Catholics and Huguenots fought each other in a succession
of violent encounters. The Catholics had organized the Holy League with the support
of Spain, and the Protestants, while professing an absolute loyalty to the king,
constituted a theocracy under the leadership, successively, of Louis !, de Bourbon,
Prince de Conde'; Gaspard II de Coligny; and Henry of Navarre. The civil disorders
culminated in the massacre of a great number of Protestants throughout the entire
kingdom, on August 23-24, 1572, the eve of St. Bartholomew's Day. The definitive
victory of Henry of Navarre over the League, followed by his accession to the
throne of France under the name of Henry IV, in 1594, marked the end of the struggle.
He adopted Catholicism for political reasons, but the Edict of Nantes in 1598
granted the following to the Huguenots: private worship and liberty of conscience
throughout France; public worship in about 200 towns and 3,000 castles; financial
support from the state to Protestant schools and ministers; legalized publication
of Protestant books; full civil and political rights, with freedom to trade,
inherit property, enter all schools, and serve in both local and national parliaments;
special courts, les chambres d'edit, with both Catholic and Protestant members
to deal with disputes concerning Protestants; free assembly to handle judicial
functions; and the control of about 200 towns and cities for eight years (later
During the reign of Louis XIII, Carginal Richelieu undertook to recall the privileges
of the Protestants, and they lost all political power with the loss of La Rochelle
in 1628, though they retained most civil liberties. Louis XIV initiated a policy
of forced conversion, and soldiers were billeted in Protestant homes until the
inhabitants would embrace the king's religion. The Edict of Nantes was revoked
on October 18, 1685, and Huguenots emigrated in large numbers to England, the
Netherlands, Germany, and America. French communities were founded in New York,
Massachusetts, Virginia, and the Carolinas. In France, Protestant beliefs continued
even after the emigration. The Huguenots were now mostly middle-class tradesmen
and artisans. Though persecution continued intermittently, the general official
attitude during the eighteenth century was one of indifference. The Edict of
Toleration, 1787, restored their civil liberties and Napoleon I granted them
state subsidies in return for state control of their church. In 1905 all churches
were separated from the state; but the Huguenots in France have continued, despite
factional differences, to grow in number and now make up a small but industrious
and influential group.
BIOGRAPHY: OUR ANCESTORS, THE HUGUENOTS IN FRANCE
The Huguenots as we all know, were French Protestants. Protestantism was introduced
into France during the Reformation. Protestantism was accepted in France by many
members of the nobility, by people engaged in intellectual pursuits and by members
of the middle class--particularly those having special competencies in the professions,
trades and handicrafts. Protestantism was a solid, conservative movement of notable
respectability on the part of many of the most responsible and most accomplished
people in France.
The Huguenot Church grew rapidly. At its first synod in 1559, fifteen churches
were represented. Over two thousand churches sent representatives to the Huguenot
Church synod in 1561. In the beginning the new religion was respected, and the
Huguenots were greatly favored by Francis I, because of their standing and abilities.
Later, however, Francis I, for political reasons, turned against them, and they
experienced alternately high favor and outrageous persecution. France was ninety
percent Roman Catholic, and heresy was viewed by the man in the street, as treason
against God. Clashes occurred repeatedly, and frequently erupted into open warfare
on a grand scale.
However, it is to be recognized that economic considerations also influenced
Huguenot persecution. The Huguenots were workers. With hard common sense they
realized that they must produce what they consumed. They would give work to a
beggar, but never alms. Even Richelieu, the so-called "Nemesis of the Huguenots",
forbidding them to leave France, was quoted as saying, "They are workers,
France needs them." It has been said that Lafayette, himself a Roman Catholic,
was greatly impressed by the fact that so many of the American leaders were of
Huguenot ancestry, and that upon returning to France, he urged an Edict of Toleration
upon Louis XVI. However, by the time of the Edict of Toleration, the Huguenot
emigrants, with few exceptions, had raised families and sunk their roots so deeply
in other lands as to prevent their return to France.
BIOGRAPHY: EMIGRATION TO THE AMERICAN COLONIES
Huguenot settlers immigrated into the American Colonies directly from France
and indirectly from the Protestant countries of Europe. This immigration began
at an early date--before the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes--and continued
for over one hundred years. Although the Huguenots settled along almost the entire
eastern coast of North America, they showed a preference for what are now the
States of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and South Carolina.
Just as France suffered a notable loss through emigration of the intelligent,
capable Huguenots, so the American Colonies gained through their immigration.
The colonists who had already settled North America were mostly farmers, laborers,
ministers, soldiers, sailors and people who had been engaged in government. The
Huguenots were able to supply the colonies with some excellent physicians and
a large number of expert artisans and craftsmen; for example, Irenee Dupon t,
who had learned from the immortal Lavoisier how to make gunpowder; and the goldsmith,
Apollos Rivoire, the father of Paul Revere, who created silver articles which
will be treasured as long as our civilization lasts, and church bells which ring
in New England today; who also did prodigious things with copper, and displayed
outstanding ability as an industrial organizer, whose place in history is assured
because he once rode a horse!
Moreover, the Huguenots adapted themselves readily to the New World, and showed
an astonishing propensity for marrying people who were not Huguenots. Their descendants
increased rapidly and spread quickly throughout the American Colonies. Today,
people of Huguenot origin are found in all parts of our Country.#
The LANIER family is an interesting family with an interesting history. Several
people have researched and written about the Lanier's. Tyler's Quarterly Historical
and Genealogical Magazine, Vols, III, VI and VII, VA Magazine of History and
Biog. Vol. XV, p. 77, Vols, XV, XXIX, and Louise Ingersoll's book, LANIER. Then
of course, Ben R. Brewer has a chapter about the Laniers in his book. Louise
Ingersoll's book is a genealogy of the Lanier family who came to Virginia and
their French Ancestors of London. She spent twenty years in research. Her main
objective was to find the correct English Ancestry of the immigrants who came
LANIER derived, probably from the ancient French language meaning "Falcon".
It could have originated from the word "lanier" or "lanner",
a word used in hawking. It has been found spelled several ways: Lanyier, Lanere,
Laner, Lanyear, Lanear, Laniere, and Lanier.
The Laniers are of French descent and originally come from Gascony, the southern
most part of France. One famous American Lanier was Sidney Lanier, the poet.
The Laniers were Protestants in France, and were involved in the persecution
which reached it's peak in 1572 with the massacre of St. Bartholomew. The Lanier
family fled to London, and the records of the Huguenot Society of London have
them on record. They were in London for three generations before coming to America,
so they are Huguenots to London, rather than Huguenots to America.
BIOGRAPHY: N I C H O L A S L A N I E R
Our first Lanier generation begins with Nicholas Lanier in the Courts of King
Henry II of France, Queen Elizabeth and King James of England. This was a family
of musicians and the ancestor of our American Laniers. Nicholas Lanier's proof
of service to Henry II is found in the "Chantres et autres Jouers of d'instruments"
of the French King's Chambers for the years of 1559-1560. Nicholas served in
the Court of Henry II of France and the Court of Queen Elizabeth and King James
of England. Nicholas married ca 1565 to Lucreece and they had six sons , all
musicians of the Royal Family, and four daughters; and two of them married musicians.
Nicholas later had at least eight or more grandsons to become members of the
Royal Orchestra. Three generations served the Royal Family. Nicholas Lanier was
named Musician of the Flutes in 1604.
The Will Abstract of Nicholas was dated January 28, 1611-12, and proved July
1612, in the Rochester XIX, folio 514. To my wife Lucreece, all my lands and
goods; to sons John, Alphonse, Innocent, Jerome, Clement, 12 shillings; to Andrea
20 pounds if he does not have my place; my four daughters, three of whom are
unmarried, I leave to the discretion of my wife Lucreece, my sole EX. Lucreece
Lanier was buried in east Greenwich, January 4, 1633-4. Her will is recorded
in the Rochester Register XXII, folio l05.
Children: Most were musicians and married musicians.
1. John Lanier, born 1565, will dated November 21, 1616, proved December 21,
1616. Married October 17, 1585 Frances, daughter of Mark Anthony
Galliardello and Margerie Galliardello. John Lanier was buried in the Chancel
Camberwell Church near his mother-in-law. John had a son, Nicholas Lanier,
who became very prominent . His portrait was painted by Vandyke and by
Livensz. The portrait of Nicholas Lanier by Vandyck was painted in Genoa,
Italy in 1632. Nicholas was sent abroad by the King in 1625 to purchase
paintings, statues, and fine art. During the Civil War, many of the King's fine
pieces were sold at auction. Many of the Laniers bought these paintings, of which
Nicholas bought his own portrait by Van Dyck. His uncles, Jerome and Clement
Lanier (Our line) also bought pieces of the art collection. The Civil War was
responsible for the loss of many fortunes, the Laniers included. However, after
following the Stewarts into exile, the Laniers were returned to their high position.
Children were: Mark Anthony, John, Francis; and daughters, Lucretia, Elizabeth,
2. Alphonse Lanier, died November 1613, and married Amelia. He had a son,
3. Innocent Lanier, died early 1625.
4. Jerome Lanier, buried December 1, 1659. Married Phrisdiswith Grafton.
5. Clement Lanier. (Our line)
6. Andrea Lanier, married Joyce Perry.
7. Ellen Lanier, burried August 3, 1638, married Alphonse Ferrabosco.
8. Frances Lanier, married Thomas Foxe, February 4, 1618.
9. Mary Lanier, buried October 13, 1676.
10. Katherine Lanier, died before September 2, 1660, married Daniel Farrand.
Nicholas LANIER and Lucretia "Lucreece" BASSANO were married in 1565 in All
Hallows Barking, London, England. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~fairbanks/lanier/history.htm
This Family's Coat of Arms (see Scrapbook) is of the Crusading origin. The cross
of squares is called an "honorable ordinary" and is one of the symbols
of nobility. The cross is also a Crusading emblem, each square denoting a year
spent upon the Crusades by the ancestor. The bordure is another honorable ordinary
and an additional mark of nobility. The falcon is a heraldic pun, called a "cantling"
and is a play upon the name. The lion, the symbol of bravery, is taken from the
family residence. It is the Lion of Gascony. In the arms, blue is the color of
truth, silver of loyalty, and gold of strength and purity.
The name of Lanier is derived from the ancient French tongue and means a Falcon.
So far as written records show, the family is of French descent, and is from
the province of Gascony in southern France; however, older records show a Tuscany
family in northern Italy of the same name, and several genealogists claim that
the family moved from Tuscany to Gascony after the Crusades.
The records of the Huguenot Society of London show a John Lanye living in County
Surry in 1547; a record of 1 July 1544 gives a John Lanye, laborer, born Normandy,
age 50 years, in England 30 years, married an English woman, six children; and
a Nicholas Laneares in London in 1550, a denizen.
John Lanyer, a musician, arrived in London in 1561 with his wife Joan, and two
children; and Nicholas Lanier arrived from Paris in 1561. Both were musicians
to the Queen.
The Laniers were Protestants who left France to escape the early persecutions.
Protestantism began in 1555, and the height of the persecutions was reached in
the massacre of St. Bartholomew on the eve of August 24, 1572. It was in 1560
that the conspiracy began. One party hoped to enrich themselves by the estates
of the heretics who were executed, or banished. The other party hoped to gain
the favor of the masses by punishing the Protestants. The estates of those who
fled were sold, their children who remained behind were exposed to the greatest
sufferings. France lost thousands of useful and rich inhabitants whose industry,
wealth, and skills found a welcome reception in foreign countries. To prevent
the emigration of the Protestants, the frontiers were guarded with the utmost
vigilance; yet more than 500,000 fled to England, Holland, Switzerland, and Germany.
The Laniers were Huguenots to London, and are well recorded in the books of the
Huguenot Society of London, but could not be called Huguenots to America, having
been naturalized Englishmen for three generations. However, their descendants
are eligible to join the Huguenot Society.
There were two Laniers who fled France at the same time, in 1561, both settling
in the Parish of St. Olave in London. They are John and Nicholas. It is possible
they were brothers or cousins. Nicholas is the Lanier we are directly
"Lucreece" BASSANO died in 1633 in East Greenwich, St Alphage Parish,
England. She was born in France? Or Bassano Del Grappa?.
BIOGRAPHY: She is the daughter of Anthony Bassano and Elina de Nazzi or Nassi.
This is a family of Italian/Jewish background from Bassano del Grappa, Italy,
outside of Venice. Here the five sons of Geronimo Bassano were musicians just
as their father was and played for the Dogge of Venice. Jaccapo Bassano was a
famous Rennasaince artist of Venice at this time period. Children were:
|John LANIER was born in 1565.
JOHN LANIER, first son of Nicholas Lanier, was born by 1565. He was a flutist.
On October 17, 1585 at the Holy Minories, London, England he married Frances
Galliardello. She was baptized November 4, 1566 at the Holy Minories, daughter
of Mark Anthony and Margerie Galliardello. Mark Anthony Galliardello was a native
of Venice, Italy. He became of the Queens musicians, having been sent for
by King Henry VIII.
Sometime before 1610, John and Frances Lanier had moved to Camberwell, County
Surry, probably to be near Frances mother, as Margerie Galliardello died
there in February 1610/11, her will being dated February 15, 1610 and proved
March 9, 1610/11. In the will she names a son Caesar, and her daughter Frances
Lanier, wife of John Lanier, one of his Majesties Musicians. Her husband,
Mark Anthony Galliardello had died in 1585, and the Register of the Holy Minories
says of him, Mr. Mark Anthony Galliardello, a Musician and servant to ye
Queens Majestie, was buried in good name and fame and most godly respect
of all his neighbors, ye 17 June 1585.
They were still living in Camberwell when John Lanier made his will November
21, 1616, which was proved there on December 21, 1616 in the Archdeaconry Court
of Surry. The Parish Register of St. Giles church, Camberwell, recorded his burial
as the 5th day of December 1616. He would have been about 51 years
His will names his wife Frances, sons Mark Anthony (2nd), John, and Francis;
two daughters, Lucretia and Elizabeth, both being due by bond from his son Nicholas
Lanier Gent. at their ages of 18; his daughter Judith, wife of Edward Norgate.
He requests that he be buried in the Chancel of Camberwell Church near
my mother-in-law, Mrs. Mark Anthony Galliardello. He leaves to his wife
a messuage (which means a dwelling house and adjoining lands including adjacent
buildings) and tenement called Suttie Campes, County Cambridge, for life.
i. Mark Anthony Lanier, bapt. 26 Aug 1587; d. 26 Aug 1587.
ii. Nicholas Lanier, bapt. 10 Sep 1588; d. 1665/6; m. Elizabeth
iii. Judith Lanier, bapt. 20 Dec 1590; m. Edward Norgate
iv. Mark Anthony Lanier (2nd), b. abt 1592; d. 1660; m. Judith
v. John Lanier, b. abt 1594; m. Eleanor
vi. Francis Lanier, b. abt 1596
vii. Lucretia Lanier
viii. Elizabeth Lanier